Navigating the Mortgage Charge Minefield: Identifying Non-Shopable
Last week I discussed the various mortgage charges for which borrowers could shop. It is also important for mortgage borrowers to know the charges they can’t shop, if only to avoid wasting time trying to shop or negotiate them.
Private Mortgage Insurance(PMI)
On a conventional (non-FHA, non-VA) mortgage, you are required to purchase PMI if you put less than 20% down on a purchase, or have less than 20% equity on a refinance. Because the insurer is selected by the lender, PMI has never been shopable by the borrower, who pays the premium quoted by the lender.
This changed recently when MGIC began quoting premium rates on my web site. The quotes cover both monthly premiums and single premiums financed in the mortgage, offering borrowers a choice they did not now have before. See Finding a Mortgage on the Professor's Certified Lender Network.
On most mortgage loans lenders require that the property be appraised in order to make sure that the purchaser is not overpaying, or that a refinancing borrower has the equity (value less loan balance) that is required. The appraisal company is selected by the lender and paid by the borrower. The fee generally ranges from $300 to $600.
This is a fee paid to a local governmental entity to record the mortgage or deed of trust, and title documents, in an official registry. The fee is whatever the entity charges. While it varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, it is not negotiable anywhere.
State and Local Transaction Taxes
These taxes may cover the mortgage transaction, the property transaction or both. They vary greatly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but are not negotiable anywhere.
Lenders generally require that an
escrow account be established with funds the borrower provides at
closing, from which the lender makes payments for property taxes and
homeowners insurance as they come due. Lenders usually get to keep the
interest on escrow accounts. Borrowers can usually opt out of this
requirement if they pay a special fee, called “waiver of escrow”.
Since lenders have an incentive to make the escrows as large as possible – they keep the interest on the account -- HUD has imposed a ceiling on the size of escrow accounts, which in turn limits the amount the lender can ask the borrower to deposit at closing. If you know your property taxes and insurance premium, you can calculate the required escrow at closing by following the procedure at How Do I Figure Escrows? on my web site.
Keep in mind that the escrow deposit continues to be your money, can be used only to pay your debts, and any unused portion will be returned to you when you pay off the mortgage.
Because mortgage payments are due on the first day of a month, regardless of when the loan is closed and funded, borrowers must pay interest for the period between the funding date and the first day of the following month. The amount of daily interest due at closing is calculated by dividing the annual rate by 360 to get a daily rate, multiplying this by the loan amount to get the daily interest, and multiplying that by the number of days for which interest is due.
For example, the loan is for $200,000 at 5% and it is funded on April 16, which requires an interest payment for the 15 days until May 1. The daily interest is thus .05/360 x 200,000 = $27.78 x 15 = $416.70.
Why 360 days rather than 365? No justifiable reason. It is a self-serving convention of the industry that has never been challenged by regulators. It is of no interest to class-action lawyers because the amounts involved have been so small. Using a 365 day year in the example, the amount comes to $410.96, for a difference of $5.74.